Rabu, 31 Disember 2008

Selamat Datang 2009!!!!


Saya mendoakan agar 2009 menjanjikan kecemerlangan dan keceriaan buat hidup anda semua. Saya juga mendoakan agar dunia debat akan lebih bermakna buat kesemua Alumni yang dikasihi. Walau apapun yang berlaku kuatkan semangat tingkatkan usaha, "Takkan Hilang Debat Di Diri Kita..."

Ikhlas Dari :

Syamsul Amri bin Hj Ismail
Pengerusi Blog Alumni Debat Malaysia (ADAM)

Ahad, 21 Disember 2008

Persuasion Tips & Tactics - By Che Khairul Azli

Persuasion as the use of communication to reinforce, modify, or change attitudes, beliefs, values or actions. Hence, the persuasive speech is intended to influence these characteristics of other audience (Stiff, 1994). An effective and persuasive presentation must be focused on satisfying the needs of the audience, so that these people conclude that what is being proposed is in their best interest.

The majority of the students, even those with the highest level of anxiety at the beginning of the speech, showed the significant improvement in their own communication competence, and they also perceived the audience as more pleasant and supportive by the end of the speech. In a similar study, students were tested at the beginning and the end of the basic communication course (Rubin, Rubin, & Jordan, 1997). The course had the most favorable effect on students who started out high in communication apprehension and low communication competence.

The Tips and tactics outlined in this paperwork are not classroom theory, but instead evolve from the real world lessons I have learned speaking to demanding audiences.

First ; Believe in yourself.

We all know that audiences are drawn to a speaker with confidence. We all know that we need to have confidence as speakers. But what is this magical thing called confidence, and where does it come from? How do you gain the ability to believe in yourself and to demonstrate that belief to the whole world? Do you always have to feel confident to look confident? And is reducing anxiety the same thing as gaining confidence? Let's explore these questions and solve the mystery of this most desirable and elusive trait. First of all, what does confidence look like? A confident speaker exudes positive energy that feeds and excites the audience. A confident speaker appears strong and authoritative, but not intimidating. A confident speaker appears relaxed but not sloppy, positive but not saccharine, and knowledgeable but not arrogant. Whew! That's a lot to live up to. Confidence is both mental and physical. It's the positive way you perceive yourself, and it's the way your body projects that positive self-image. You don't have to be confident to appear confident, but the beauty of this mental and physical practice is that the more you appear confident to others, the more your confidence will grow for real. When you believe in yourself and believe in your message, your audience will, too. (Lisa, 2008).

Second ; Show your commitment about idea being discussed.

The expression ‘less is more’ is very relevant to public speaking. It is important not to tell the audience everything you know, rather tell the audience what it is that they need to know. Being able to select the best and most relevant information to include in your speech is an invaluable skill. However be careful—picking and choosing what is to be included in your speech does not mean that your speech should only deliver half the story. A good speech delivers the whole story but in a manner that is quick, clear and understandable (Booher, 1994).

A great way to engage your audience and maintain their attention is by delivering information in a way that they can relate to. When writing your speech try to think of how you can bring your topic back to the everyday. By simply dropping in a few anecdotes and using practical examples to illustrate a point, you will make it easier for your audience to understand complex issues and to actually remember what it is that you have said! (Robert, 1998).

Third ; Know your audience.

The most important aspect of public speaking is the audience. At all times during the process of preparing and delivering a speech, we need to keep in mind that we are speaking to an audience and not just to ourselves. Whether the goal is to entertain, to inform, or to persuade, we should try to reach our listeners and tailor the speech to them. Expert in public speaking say that the number one reason a speech fails to achieve its goal is because the speaker does not know his or her audience very well (St. John, 1955).

To be successful and persuasive, presentations must be audience-centered. You must know the problems of your audience because your objective is to offer them a solution. This requires in-depth-research about your audience. Keep in mind that the prime motivation for people to listen to you is their perception that your presentation will benefit them. *What's in it for me?* is the classic question of all audiences (Morreale & Bovee, 1997).

Fourth ; Balance emotional appeals with solid reasoning and credibility.

An emotional appeal is based on psychology and passion, which involves how people feel. In order for a fear appeal to be effective, it must include information that poses a real threat to listeners, and it must prescribe an effective action for handling the treat (Stiff, 1994; Witte, 1994).

To use emotional appeals effectively, you can appeal to any of variety of your listener emotions, such as love, hate, sympathy, guilt, or even fear. A fear appeal is based on changing listeners’ attitudes or behaviors through the use of an anxiety-arousing message. This type of appeal is useful in situations where you need to motivate the audience to pay attention and get more involved in your topic (Roser & Thompson, 1995).

Fifth ; Use fact, data and logic.

Professional public speakers never recite dry facts and figures. Their secret is to transform the information into a story. Facts and data are abstract and need to be translated into life situations before they matter to people and make sense. For example, the statistic that 90 percent of the mortality of a threatened frog species occurs in the tadpole stage would probably mean little to most people. Instead you can transform this fact if you allow your audience to imagine if only three out of the 30 people in the room were to survive to adulthood (Susan, 2001).

To be effective, a fact should be highly relevant to the speech topic, and it should contain enough evidence that it can stand on its own as a solid piece of information. David Slater (1998) of Wayne State University also uses a descriptive statistic to reveal what is happening to the entire group of people who need born marrow transplant.

Speak with conviction as if you really believe in what you are saying. Persuade your audience effectively. The material you present orally should have the same ingredients as that which are required for a written research paper, i.e. a logical progression from INTRODUCTION (Thesis statement) to BODY (strong supporting arguments, accurate and up-to-date information) to CONCLUSION (re-state thesis, summary, and logical conclusion) (Tammy, 1998).

Stories must allow the audience to relate to the situation and should be told in a conversational manner as though recounting the scene to a group of friends. Instead of introducing a talk on tropical plants with a dry list of species, have the audience imagine their typical morning without a drink of coffee, cocoa, or orange juice. Lead them through a whole day with no products derived from tropical plants (Susan, 2001).

Sixth ; Put material in human terms rather than technical terms.

People use rules to help sort out what certain words or phrases mean, as well as to determine what they should say next in an ongoing conversation. The former kind of rules may be called constitute and the latter regulative (Cronen, 1999).

In 1950s, Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf developed the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. This theory was based on a form of linguistic determinism – language determines what we see in the world and how we think. Persuasive speakers uses and emotional appeal when they encourage audiences to experience particular feelings in relation to selected example, quotations, numbers, and other item of evidence.

By organizing our experience, language exercises a powerful influence in our life. The language you use help you make sense of people and events in certain ways and guides how you interact with situations. Consider what happens when you choose to label a situation or a person as a ‘problem’. In most cultures, onces we label something as a problem, we are then moved to take action that ‘fix the problem’ and assign blame to person or person for problem (Volonishov/Bakhtin, 1973).

Wittgenstein’s (1953) statement “ A drop of grammer and an ocean of meaning” reflect the power of language to focus our attention: When we used word, it is associated with the whole set of other words and meanings. Take example, the case of gender. Many researchers argue that men and women are socialized into two separate language communities based on gender. Girls are be quieter, more peaceful, concerned with harmony relations and more cooperative. Boys are socialized to be athletic, assertive, focused on the self, and more competitive (Meyers, Brawshers, Winston & Crob, 1997).

All the above example should be considered once you aim to delivered the winning presentation by optimum the human term of the audience.

Seventh ; Use assertive communication technique.

The importance of mastering public speaking techniques to address audiences effectively and powerfully has been an issue since the beginnings of recorded history. The Bible's Old Testament makes no bones about the fact that the most influential prophets and leaders were those who could sway their audiences verbally. Throughout history, oratory skills have repeatedly proved to the decisive factor that turns the tide of public opinion. The Powerful oratory skills of many leaders have won wars, averted mass panic and saved companies from financial disaster. Successful public speaking involves more than just choosing the right words (though this is certainly an important factor). Effective public speaking techniques include establishing a rapport and relationship with the audience in many different ways (Buzzle.com).

The most effective public speakers make their audience comfortable in subtle, calculated ways. These ways soon become second nature as the public speaker's confidence levels rise. Among the most useful techniques is the use of humor. Cracking a joke - preferably at one's own expense - is a sure-fire means of warming up an audience. This is why orators who use humor are more effective than the serious, lecturing types. Some successful orators advocate unorthodox methods, such as speaking on a relatively empty stomach. Others even advise speakers not to empty their bladder before a speech, claiming that this maintains the necessary edge in the situation. Finally, we must all discover our own most suitable public speaking techniques. However, nothing beats practice and proper preparation before the event (Evans, 1992).

Eighth ; Use appropriate non-verbal communication techniques.

Don’t hide behind a podium. Stand where the audience can see you and talk directly to them. If you need to write on the board or point to a slide, stop talking while your back is turned, then continue. Maintain eye contact with the audience, not with your slide or prop. Some speakers like to pick out a few people in the audience in different areas of the room to focus on during their talk. Walk around and use gestures. Your enthusiasm will be contagious. Put your whole body into your presentation. Facial expressions can show enthusiasm or sorrow; body movements can indicate size or emphasize an important point (Susan, 2001).

Ninth ; Maintain your composure.

Stage fright is a horrible thing to have. It keeps you from being able to give an effective presentation in front of a group of people, and can affect you both physically and mentally. There are several different things that you can do, however, to help yourself to get over the initial stage fright that you might be feeling. Believe it or not, your stage fright will begin to disappear from the moment that you take a platform. Most people find that after the first few minutes they become a little more comfortable and then after they are into the meat of the presentation they almost forget that they are speaking to a group. You can speed up the calming process, however, by using some various breathing techniques and also by keeping yourself a little bit limber on the platform (Clair, 1998).

A lot of people use various breathing techniques in order to help themselves maintain a calm disposition. This is not only the case when it comes to public speaking but also in general health practices. There are methods, such as those practiced during yoga, that will help you to be able to draw on the strength and support that breathing deeply can provide. Most people realize that breath is actually life and you can use this knowledge to be able to calm yourself before you get up on the platform. Several very deep breaths will help you to be able to maintain your composure and to become comfortable standing in front of a group faster (Fatt, 1999).

Another thing that you can do to help to speed up the calming process is to keep yourself limber while you are giving your presentation. By limber I mean that you should gesture normally and also move about as is permitted by the theme of your presentation. You will want to avoid gestures that do not have any purpose and also from pacing whenever you are giving a presentation. I saw someone that paste 20 feet back and forth the entire time that they talked. I'll have to admit it is one of the most annoying things I have ever experienced and I got absolutely nothing out of what they were trying to say. Not only that but their speech was being videotaped and the poor cameraman had to follow him back in force for 20 minutes while he talked (Harris, 1994).

Tenth ; Use props to enhance your story, not steal the show.

According to Larry Bodine (2006), In public speaking the term "prop" is a shortened version of the theatrical term "property," a word used to describe any object handled or used by an actor in a performance. When public speaking you are a performer whether you believe it or not. You have an obligation to use whatever means necessary to get your message across to the audience.

Props help warm up the audience when you do a public speaking engagement. They can be used as a substitute for notes. They help focus attention on the speaking points you are trying to make along with illustrating them for you. They make better connections than your words with the visually oriented members of your audience. They create interest, add variety, and make your points more memorable.

Didn't someone say a prop is worth a thousand words? Maybe that was a picture, but its just about the same thing. Many times a well selected prop will illustrate your point much better than you could ever do in words. It also focuses attention directly on the point you are trying to make in your public speaking presentation because it is something novel that is occurring during the public speaking presentation. People can space out easily on your words, but a unique prop is hard to ignore. Also, the visually oriented people in your audience will perk up and get more value when you use props.

Another good reason to use props in public speaking is to stimulate memory recall. People remember pictures far longer than words. That is why the great public speakers that use stories try to use words to create images in your mind. They know the images will be remembered when the words are long forgotten. If you are not a great storyteller yet, you can use props to help create these pictures at your public speaking presentations.

When using audio-visual aids to enhance your presentation, be sure all necessary equipment is set up and in good working order prior to the presentation. If possible, have an emergency backup system readily available. Check out the location ahead of time to ensure seating arrangements for audience, whiteboard, blackboard, lighting, location of projection screen, sound system, etc. are suitable for your presentation.

And, Eleventh ; Provide reinforcement and follow through.

Build a relationship with your audience and deliver a successful presentation. That means you need to engage your audience - to build a relationship with them - often in less than an hour. You need to focus on delivering to them what they want to hear in a way that they want to hear it. Build a relationship with them by using all the components of effective communication. Start with a warm, sincere greeting. This is the first step in building any relationship and it is particularly important when establishing a relationship with your audience. And remember, trust and authenticity are critical to any relationship and this includes the relationship between speaker and audience (William Aruda, 2003).

Vocal varying your voice is critical to helping the audience understand the important points in your presentation. And speaking with enough volume will ensure that all members of the audience hear you regardless of where they are sitting. Remember the old rule of public speaking: tell them what you are going to tell them, tell them, and tell them what you told them. The audience is more likely to remember the beginning of your speech, the closing and items that are repeated. So, if you think they are a bit confused, take the time to repeat key messages (Lustiq, 1993).

Dorothy Sarnoff says "Make sure you have finished speaking before your audience has finished listening." It is always a good idea to leave them wanting more. So, finish early and leave extra time for Q&A. By being prepared and exuding your authentic personal brand, you will build a solid, sincere relationship with your audience, and ensure an effective performance.


Whether we like it or not, public speaking is something that is relevant to everyone. Whether it is experienced at school, university, your workplace or simply by making a speech at your best friend’s wedding-public speaking it seems, is an inescapable part of the everyday.

So far as fears go, public speaking ranks right up there with the worst of them. Some people go so far as to say they would rather die than give a speech in public. If you are someone that suffers from nerves, focusing on these anxieties is unproductive. For you, the best way forward is to think up strategies to control those nerves, so that they don’t control you. It is important that you find the relaxation technique that works best for you such as positive visualizations or deep breathing.

Prepared by – Che Khairul Azli Che Ahmad

Khamis, 18 Disember 2008

Debat Hak Semua.....

Melihatkan kepada Pertandingan Debat DiRaja pada tahun 2008 ini, hati ini masih tertanya-tanya, di manakah perginya sinar perdebatan yang diagung-agungkan sejak sekian lama? Bukannya menuding pendebat kini tidak hebat, dan tidak juga menyatakan bahawa pendebat dahulu hebat, bukan itu. Tetapi persoalan yang acapkali bermain di fikiran saya ke mana agaknya arah tuju debat ini. Banyak ruangan makalah dan tinta disebarkan seantero tanahair menyingkap betapa masing-masing merupakan pencinta debat. Tetapi sejauh mana usaha kita selaku ‘pencinta debat’ ini benar-benar membuktikan apa yang dikata… yang selama ini kelihatan tidak pernah dikotakan.

Tidak usah bermain bicara lagi, kerana yang jelas debat ini tidak pun ke mana-mana. Meskipun bagus ke’bagus’an itu tidak pernah sama sekali dikembangkan. Kerana kita semua sedar, “tidak akan ada yang baru jika tiada yang lama”. Dan jika ini benar mengapa yang lama dipinggirkan sedemikian rupa. Terutamanya di dalam Pertandingan Debat DiRaja 2008. Bukan semua senior yang dijemput. Mengapa? Jika diimbas kembali kepada penulisan saya yang lepas, anda pasti tahu mengapa, kerana… ada di antara senior debat itu tidak disenangi oleh beberapa individu di sana yang juga merupakan senior debat juga.

Khabarnya ketika di UIAM baru-baru ini ketika Debat DiRaja berlangsung telah dirancangkan satu sesi pertemuan bagi menerangkan tentang apa itu ADI (Alumni Debat IPT). Tetapi menurut rakan-rakan di sana ia telah ditangguhkan dengan tiba-tiba kerana kehadiran bebeerapa senior debat yang tidak disenangi ke pertandingan ini. Aduhhh.. kenapalah ini terjadi. Debat ini hak siapa sebenarnya? Hak semua kan? So, yang dok menggelabah dengan kehadiran alumni ni kenapa?

Yang paling memeranjatkan saya… adalah seorang senior debat yang kini agak aktif melatih satu pasukan ni, bila ditanya.. “Kenapa kau tak ajak Acoy jadi Hakim?”. Katanya, “ Aku memang dah lama tak bercakap dengan Acoy. Acoy pun dah declare yang dia dah tak nak terlibat dengan team UiTM lagi.
Dia sibuk dan malas nak campur dengan hal-hal debat UiTM lagi!”. Inilah statement yang paling jahat, busuk dan yang tidak pernah terkeluar dari mulut saya. Dan kini barulah saya faham mengapa budak-budak UiTM boleh menyatakan mereka tidak menjemput saya untuk memantau sesi latihan mereka kerana saya sibuk TANPA mereka pernah bertanya kepada saya. Apa pun ini tidaklah bermakna saya begitu terdesak untuk menjadi jurulatih kepada UiTM cumanya saya terkilan bahawa saya dikatakan pernah menyatakan sedemikian rupa sedangkan ia sebenarnya tidak begitu.

Sewajarnya ’beliau’ yang merupakan pendatang di UiTM perlu sedar akan hakikat ini dan tidak mengambil kesempatan meracuni pemikiran pendebat muda dengan sentimen halus berbaur kebencian dan hasutan yang berniat jahat untuk kepentingan sendiri. Dahulunya ’beliau’ ini hanya datang sebagai pemerhati sahaja di UiTM tetapi kemudiannya beliau sedikit demi sedikit berjaya memonopoli UiTM sehinggakan junior UiTM sehingga kini tidak dapat lagi menghidu apa sebenarnya rekod peribadinya. Tetapi tidak mengapalah, tentang itu saya reservekan untuk penulisan yang akan datang.

Apa pun kita selaku alumni debat Malaysia perlu tetap bersama berganding bahu dan memastikan agar dunia debat akan terus bersinar dan berkembang maju. Jangan asingkan diri kita daripada dunia debat, kerana mereka perlu tahu siapa kita. Insya Allah saya sedang merancang pertemuan kesemua alumni debat Malaysia, sedikit masa lagi untuk terus-terusan menyusun aktiviti kita.

Semoga ketemu lagi di lain masa.

Syamsul Amri bin Hj Ismail

Pengerusi Blog Alumni Debat Malaysia (ADAM)

UIAM menanti UPM di Pertandingan Akhir

AKSI pendebat UIAM, Nurul Husna ketika menyampaikan usul penggulungan pada pertandingan suku akhir debat kategori Bahasa Melayu Utama di UIAM, Gombak, semalam.

UNIVERSITI Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (UIAM) antara pasukan terawal menempah tempat ke pertandingan akhir Debat Diraja Antara Universiti Awam ke-12 apabila berjaya melepasi saingan peringkat separuh akhir yang berlangsung di universiti itu, semalam.

Pasukan UIAM (A) berjaya mara ke pertandingan akhir bersama pasukan Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) B bagi kategori Bahasa Melayu Utama.

Selain itu, UIAM turut mengungguli kategori Bahasa Arab Utama apabila dua pasukannya iaitu UIAM A dan UIAM B turut layak bagi penentuan juara kategori berkenaan.

Selain itu, UIAM turut mengungguli kategori Bahasa Arab Utama apabila dua pasukannya iaitu UIAM A dan UIAM B turut layak bagi penentuan juara kategori berkenaan.

Bagi kategori Bahasa Melayu Muda, pertandingan akhir bakal menyaksikan pertembungan antara Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) A dan UPM B.

Keputusan bagi pasukan layak ke pertandingan akhir kategori Bahasa Inggeris Utama dan Muda belum diperoleh sehingga lewat petang semalam.

Pertandingan akhir berlangsung hari ini di Pusat Kebudayaan dan Aktiviti UIAM bagi kategori Bahasa Melayu Utama, manakala Auditorium Kompleks Utama (Bahasa Inggeris Utama dan Muda serta Bahasa Melayu Muda), Dewan Senat, Bangunan Pentadbiran (Bahasa Arab Utama).

Johan kategori utama serta muda, masing-masing menerima wang tunai RM5,000 dan RM3,000 berserta piala pusingan, trofi serta sijil penyertaan, manakala naib johan pula meraih RM3,000 dan RM2,000 berserta hadiah iringan.

Lima pasukan separuh akhir kategori utama dan muda layak menerima wang tunai RM1,000 berserta trofi serta sijil penyertaan.

Anugerah pendebat terbaik pertandingan akhir kategori utama bakal menerima wang tunai RM200 dan piala iringan, manakala kategori muda, RM100 berserta piala iringan.

Sepuluh pendebat terbaik keseluruhan bagi kategori Bahasa Melayu, Bahasa Inggeris dan Bahasa Arab pula meraih wang tunai RM200 serta piala iringan.

Pada pertandingan suku akhir kategori Bahasa Melayu Utama yang berlangsung di Kuliyyah Undang-undang Ahmad Ibrahim semalam menyaksikan pertemuan sengit juara bertahan tahun lalu, UIAM dengan lawan tradisi, UM dalam perdebatan bertajuk Politik Malaysia Sudah Stabil.

UIAM yang diwakili Farhan Nordiyana Samsudin, Nurul Husna Ahmad dan Jefri Khairul Zabri bertindak sebagai pihak kerajaan, manakala UM selaku pembangkang membariskan Ali Asyraf Mohamed, Azri Zahier Azmi dan Shen Yee Aun.

Pertandingan disifatkan sengit dan penuh dengan tekanan apabila kedua-dua pasukan lantang menyampaikan hujah masing-masing, selain peluang beraksi di tempat sendiri dengan sokongan jitu hadirin memberi kelebihan UIAM menggamatkan lagi suasana pertandingan.

- Dipetik dari akademidebat.com -

Cabaran Debat DiRaja Sudah Bermula


[Dipetik dari Berita Harian, Sabtu, 29/11/2008]

SEBANYAK 128 pasukan membabitkan kira-kira 1,200 peserta dari 19 institusi pengajian tinggi awam (IPTA) seluruh negara kini berentap bagi merebut kejuaraan Pertandingan Debat Diraja Antara Universiti Awam ke-12 yang berlangsung di Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Malaysia (UIAM), bermula 29 November lalu.

Pertandingan berprestij anjuran bersama UIAM, Majlis Debat Universiti Malaysia (Madum) dan Kementerian Pengajian Tinggi itu menyaksikan lima kategori dipertandingkan iaitu Bahasa Melayu Utama, Bahasa Inggeris Utama, Bahasa Arab Utama, Bahasa Melayu Muda dan Bahasa Inggeris Muda.

UIAM dan Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (Usim) mendahului IPTA lain dengan menghantar penyertaan 11 pasukan dalam pertandingan itu.

IPTA lain ialah Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM), Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (Unimas), Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS), Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT), Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Malaka (UteM).

Seterusnya, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Universiti Darul Iman Malaysia (UDM), Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM), Universiti Malaya (UM) dan Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM).

Pertandingan peringkat awal berlangsung kelmarin membabitkan semua kategori di Kuliyyah Undang-undang membabitkan kategori Bahasa Melayu, Kuliyyah Kejuruteraan (Bahasa Inggeris) dan bangunan pentadbiran (Bahasa Arab).

Persaingan peringkat suku akhir dan separuh akhir bermula hari ini bagi menentukan pasukan layak meneruskan cabaran ke peringkat akhir, esok.

Sultan Pahang, Sultan Ahmad Shah selaku Ketua Perlembagaan UIAM dijangka hadir mencemar duli ke Majlis Penutup dan Penyampaian Hadiah pada 3 Disember.

Senarai Usul Pertandingan Debat DiRaja 2008

1) Pembangkang Di Malaysia Tidak Bijak
2) Kemenangan Obama Memberi Kita Satu Petunjuk
3) Rumah Putih Cuma Bertukar Warna
4) Kita Tidak Bersatu Dalam Isu Kepentingan Negara
5) Pengunduran Musharaf: Sinar Buat Pakistan
6) Demokrasi Malaysia: Retak Menanti Belah
7) Krisis Kehakiman Diada-adakan
8) Dunia Perlukan Kawalan Keselamatan Perairan Antarabangsa
9) Barisan Nasional Perlu Menjadi Satu Parti
10) Politik Berteraskan Kaum Masih Relevan
11) Politik Malaysia Mengancam Perpaduan
12) Debat Politik : Pemimpin Kita Belum Bersedia
13) Dunia Sudah Tidak Perlukan Kuasa Veto
14) Sidang Damai Annapolis Adalah Penamatnya
15) Politik Malaysia Sudah Stabil
16) Mahasiswa Malaysia Matang Berpolitik
17) Mengiktiraf Kemerdekaan Kosovo Adalah Tepat

1) Kawalan Harga Barang Hanya Ilusi
2) Sistem Perbankan Islam Jawapan Kepada Krisis Kewangan Dunia
3) Kenaikan Gaji Jawapan Kepada Inflasi
4) Halangan Perdagangan Antarabangsa Wajar Dihapuskan
5) ASEAN Perlukan Matawang Sendiri
6) Pengurangan Subsidi Minyak Adalah Tidak Wajar
7) Pasaran Terbuka Berat Sebelah
8) Air Asia Punca MAS Lemas
9) Sistem Bretton Woods Perlu Diganti
10) Mahasiswa Kita Boros

1) Masalah Perkauman: Salah Media
2) Demi Perpaduan: Kebebasan Media Perlu Dikawal
3) Perpaduan Kita Terus Kukuh
4) Bloggers: Duri Dalam Daging
5) Bahasa Melayu Penyatu Bangsa Malaysia
6) Setelah 51 Tahun, Bahasa Melayu Semakin Dilupakan
7) Pindaan AUKU: Mahasiswa Sudah Bersedia
8) AUKU: Menyebab Mahasiswa Lesu
9) Krisis Makanan Global: Kita Sudah Bersedia
10) Pendidikan Kita Bertaraf Dunia
11) Sukan Adalah Medium Perpaduan
12) Generasi Muda Kita Patriotik
13) Semangat Kesukarelaan Kian Pudar
14) Industri Hiburan Tidak Tentu Arah
15) Kerjasama Antarabangsa Mampu Menyelesaikan Masalah Alam Sekitar Dunia
16) Perubahan Iklim Dunia Tanggungjawab Negara Dunia Ketiga
17) Pemimpin Politik Tidak Wajar Menerajui Persatuan Sukan

1) Hijau Perlu Kekal Hijau
2) Semut Sudah Setanding Gajah
3) Harapkan Pagar, Pagar Makan Padi
4) Kerana Marahkan Nyamuk, Kelambu Dibakar
5) Berambut Lebih Baik Daripada Botak
6) Pisang Sudah Berbuah Dua Kali

Isnin, 15 Disember 2008

Parti komponen BN Sudah Lupa !!!

Pemimpin parti komponen BN lupa asas sokongan ‘kuasa’ mereka


Saranan YB Dato’ Mukhriz Mahathir agar sistem sekolah vernakular dimansuhkan dan semua kanak kanak dan pelajar mengikuti sistem sekolah kebangsaan, secara strategik bagi menjayakan proses integrasi nasional and kesefahaman intra-etnik, sepenuhnya mendapat reaksi negatif dari pemimpin pati komponen BN. Pemimpin Gerakan dan MCA membidas saranan Mukhriz, secara terbuka dan lantang.

Laporan The Star:

Thursday December 4, 2008

Stop attacking vernacular school system, say two MCA bureaus

KUALA LUMPUR: Stop attacking the vernacular school system just to score points during party elections because this creates tension among races.

The MCA Youth Education Bureau and MCA Legal Bureau criticised Umno Youth chief aspirant Datuk Mukhriz Mahathir for calling on the Government to abolish the vernacular school system to enhance unity among the people, saying that a single-school system was the only way to check racial polarisation.

“We urge Mukhriz not to purposely play up the education issue simply because of the advent of his party’s polls,” MCA National Youth education bureau chief Chong Sin Woon said yesterday.

“Such sentiment has always been played up by Umno Youth leaders, causing unhappiness among the Chinese community and creating tension among all the races.”

He added that the proposal by Mukhriz contradicted the spirit of the Federal Constitution, which guaranteed the freedom to promote and develop the vernacular school system.

Chong said the vernacular school system was an asset to the country and did not hinder national unity.

“The education sentiment has seriously been politicised, and this will only continue to reduce our nation’s competitiveness,” he added.

He invited Mukhriz to a dialogue with the bureau to have a better understanding of the importance of Chinese education to the community.

MCA Legal Bureau chairman Datuk Leong Tang Chong demanded that the Jerlun MP make a public apology to all Malaysians and refrain from making such political rhetoric.

“The law is clear, and no one is above the law. The supremacy of the Federal Constitution must be respected at all times by all Malay­sians,” he said.

He added that Mukhriz’s call for the abolition of the vernacular school system by integrating it into the national school system flew in the face of Article 152(1)(a) which inter-alia stated that “no person shall be prohibited or prevented from using (other than for official purposes) or from teaching or learning in any other language.

“(b) nothing in the Clause shall prejudice the right of the Federal Government or of any state government to preserve and sustain the use and study of the language of any other community in the Federa­tion”.


Pemuda MCA wajar mempertimbangkan Artikel 152 dan Penyata Razak 1956 secara meyeluruh sebelum memberikan reaksi, walaupun mungkin keperluan untuk mengambil peluang isu ini di’modal’kan dari konteks kedudukan politik mereka mewakili etnik Cina.

Kenyataan Mukhriz ini dibuat di Parlimen sebagai reaksi kepada saranan Timbalan Presiden MCA Dato’ Chua Soi Lek agar semangat ‘Ketuanan Melayu’ dimansuhkan. Sebelum itu, pemimpin Wanita Gerakan Dato’ Tan Liah Hoe juga mengeluarkan kenyataan berbaur yang sama, juga menerima respons negatif dari pemimpin UMNO.

Laporan Utusan Malaysia:

Lian Hoe terus dibidas


KUALA LUMPUR 13 Okt. - Kenyataan Ketua Wanita Gerakan, Datuk Tan Lian Hoe mencerminkan tahap ‘kebijaksanaan’ yang agak rendah apabila meletakkan orang Melayu di negara ini sebagai pendatang dari Nusantara.

Setiausaha Satu Gabungan Persatuan Penulis Nasional Malaysia (Gapena), Prof. Madya Datuk Zainal Abidin Borhan berkata, ini kerana Malaysia adalah sebahagian daripada lingkungan Nusantara itu sendiri.

“Bagaimana boleh orang Melayu dikatakan pendatang jika asal mereka adalah dalam lingkungan kawasan yang sama?

“Apa yang disebutkan adalah satu konsep yang tidak tepat daripada segi kerangka budaya ilmu dan antropologi malah termasuk juga arkeologi,” katanya kepada Utusan Malaysia di sini hari ini.

Jumaat lalu, Lian Hoe yang juga Timbalan Menteri Penerangan memberi peringatan supaya semua pihak tidak melupakan sejarah selain menyamakan asal usul setiap kaum di negara ini.

Beliau berkata: “Orang Melayu datang dari kepulauan Melayu di Nusantara. Orang Cina dari negara China. Orang India dari negara India.”

Zainal menjelaskan, kawasan Nusantara boleh dikatakan sebagai wilayah kebudayaan Melayu yang berbeza dengan wilayah kebudayaan Cina atau India.

Justeru katanya, kenyataan Lian Hoe itu hanya menafikan fakta dan merupakan pandangan yang dangkal.

Beliau menambah, kenyataan itu juga seolah-olah mencerminkan seorang pemilik rumah itu adalah pendatang dalam rumahnya sendiri.

Presiden Persatuan Penterjemahan Malaysia, Professor Emeritus Abdullah Hassan pula berkata, Nusantara adalah satu daerah yang besar untuk orang Melayu.

Sempadan yang wujud dalam Nusantara katanya, adalah kesan penjajahan yang membawa kepada kelahiran negara yang memiliki sempadan.

Namun katanya, walaupun kewujudan negara itu menampakkan pengasingan, tetapi ia tetap satu daerah untuk masyarakat Melayu.

“Kita memanglah datang dari pulau-pulau berlainan tetapi kita berpindah-pindah dalam alam kita sendiri,” katanya.

Dalam pada itu, Persatuan Pengguna Islam turut menyelar tindakan Lian Hoe itu sebagai boleh mewujudkan suasana tegang antara kaum.

Setiausaha Agungnya, Datuk Dr. Maamor Osman berkata, kenyataan mempersoalkan status orang Melayu sebagai masyarakat peribumi negara ini jelas tidak boleh diterima.

“Beliau jelas tidak menghormati Perlembagaan Persekutuan dan individu seperti ini patut dikenakan hukuman yang lebih tegas.

“Ini kerana dengan kedudukan Timbalan Menteri Penerangan, beliau menabur api perkauman di kalangan masyarakat negara ini,” katanya.


Kalau dikaji dan perhalusi, kenyataan Dato’ Tan Lian Hoe ini merupakan satu nada yang berbaur perkauman. Sebagai seorang anggota pentadbiran Kerajaan dan pemimpin tertinggi sebuah parti komponen BN yang banyak mendapat faedah dari semanagt ‘kongsi kuasa’ dan sokongan pengundi bukan kalangan kumpulan etnik yang mereka wakili, kenyataan ini wajar dianggap sebagai ‘kurang ajar’.

‘Provokasi’ asal yang dilakukan oleh pemimpin pemimpin parti komponen BN ini sebenarnya memberikan illustrasi sebenar psiki mereka. Samada mereka mendapat tekanan kerana populariti mereka sebagai pemimpin mewakili etnik cina dalam kerajaan ‘kongsi kuasa’ BN menurun secara drastik dan mereka memerlukan ‘modal’ untuk ‘menonjolkan’ bahawa mereka sebenarnya berusaha keras mempertahankan kepentingan kaum mereka, menjadi anggapan dikalangan ramai penganalisa politik. Satu lagi aspek yang boleh dibuat anggapan bahawa kenyatan ‘menolak’ semangat ‘Ketuanan Melayu’ dewasa ini merupakan satu yang lahir dari hati nurani pemimpin tertentu komponen BN dan ‘keikhlasan’ mereka sebagai ‘rakan kongsi’ kerajaan ‘kongsi kuasa’ mungkin ada sebab kukuh untuk perlu diragui.

Yang nyata, pemimpin parti komponen BN ini diberikan kuasa melalui sokongan rakyat semasa pilihanraya umum bukanlah atas kekuatan mereka sendiri. Ramai yang dipilih sebagai Ahli Parlimen kerana mereka bertanding dikawasan majoriti Melayu dan asas kekuatan sokongan pengundi sebenarnya datang dari pengundi Orang Melayu. Contoh yang paling jelas ialah Dato’ Tan Lian Hoe sendiri. Beliau diberikan kerusi Parlimen Grik atas pengorbanan UMNO pada PRU 12 Mac 2008; satu kerusi tradisional UMNO dan 80% pengundi merupakan orang Melayu. Ini merupakan salah satu dari dua kerusi yang Gerakan hanya mampu menang dalam PRU 12. Pendekata, Dato’ Tan Lian Hoe menganggotai pentadbiran sebagai seorang Timbalan Menteri sebenarnya atas ehsan kuasa proses demokrasi yang orang Melayu peruntukan dan penghormatan yang diberikan, dan bukan atas kekuatan beliau sendiri atau parti yang beliau wakili.

Parti parti komponen BN harus sedar bahawa kedudukan mereka dalam Kerajaan bukan atas sokongan etnik yang mereka wakili malah sokongan padu dan tidak berbelah bagi orang Melayu, atas dorongan UMNO selama 12 kali pilihanraya umum, termasuk pilihanraya umum pertama pra-Kemerdekaan 1955, dimana MCA diperuntukan 15 kerusi (hampir 30% kerusi yang dipertandingkan) walaupun kumpulan etnik yang mereka wakili, iaitu kaum Cina masih rendah yang layak mengundi. Inilah semangat ‘kongsi kuasa’ yang UMNO sanggup ‘korban’ dan peruntukan kawasan dimana pengundi Melayu menjadi majoriti kepada ‘rakan kongsi’ dan perlu diingat bahawa sokongan pengundi dikalangan orang Melayu wajar dilihat sebagai konsep ‘Ketuanan Melayu’, dari konteks dan perpektif ‘kongsi, satu pengorbanan yang Almarhum Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra berikan dan diteruskan dan didukung sehingga hari ini, dalam semangat Parti Perikatan dan hari ini, Barisan Nasional.

Sebelum ini, kelemahan Kepimpinan BN PM ‘Flip-Flop’ Dato’ Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi mengakibatkan parti kompoenn BN seperti SAPP keluar dari kerajaan ‘kongsi kuasa’ dan menjadi Pembangkang. Paling terbaru ialah PPP mengugut untuk menarik keluar dari BN. Realitinya, kedudukan dan sumbangan oleh parti ‘nyamuk’ dalam keluarga BN ini merupakan seolah olah “Ada tidak menambah, tiada tidak mengurang”, wajar disedari pemimpin mereka. Parti mereka mendapat lebih menafaat menjadi sebahagian dari keluarga ‘kongsi kuasa’ BN dari mereka sebagai parti bebas dan menjana sokongan atas kekuatan sendiri.

Oleh demikian, pemimpin parti komponen wajar ’sedar diri’ dan tidak menjadi ‘kacang lupakan kulit’. Mereka wajar kembali kepada semangat asal bagaimana toleransi, kesefahaman, kerjasama dan pelawaan dan peruntukan ‘kongsi kuasa’ diujudkan dan kesinambunganya berjaya dipertahankan sehingga hari ini, walaupun parti parti komponen BN mengalami ketirisan sokongan yang kritikal dari kumpulan etnik yang mereka wakili, contohnya semasa PRU 7 Ogos 1986 dan PRU 12 Mac 2008. Pemimpin parti komponen BN wajar mengadakan muhasabah diri secara serious dan komprehensif sebelum membuat sebarang kenyataan dan tindakan dan tidak menunggu pemimpin UMNO, sebagai tunjang kekuatan BN bertindak. Mereka harus mengambil iktibar dari episod PBS ‘menikam dari belakang’ semasa keluar dari BN menjelang PRU 8 1990.


- Dipetik dari http://bigdogdotcom.wordpress.com/

Rabu, 10 Disember 2008

Essential Elements in the Communication Process. - Oleh Che Khairul Azli

Communication means an exchange of ideas, facts, opinions, information and understanding between two or more persons. It may be defined as transmission and receipt of information on organizational matters either between two employees of organization or between two more work units or departments or between organization and outside parties dealing with organization (Shamsudin, 1993).

According to International Encyclopedia of Social Science, the word communication is derived from the Latin Word ‘Communis’ which means common “When you communicate”, says De Vito (1978), “We are trying to establish a commonness with someone”, that is we are trying to share information, an idea or attitude. According to Oxford English Dictionary, Communication means, “The imparting, conveying or exchange ideas, knowledge etc., whether by speech, writing or signs”.

On the basis of the above definitions of communication, the following are its characteristics:

One : Communication is a social processs because it involves two or more persons and they exchange ideas, information and knowledge.

Two : It is a two-way process in which sender sends the information to be receiver who receives it, understands it and starts acting upon it and gives a feedback to the sender.

Three : Communication is all pervasive function, because information, knowledge, facts and opinions are exchanged between two or more employees at the every level of organization as well as between organization and outside parties.

Four : It is continuous and on going process because every superior has to be in a regular touch with his subordinates as to seek progress of work in conformity with standards.

Five : Communication process aims at creating understanding or commonness or unity of mind on the particular matter between sender and receiver of information.

Six : Communication is multidimensional and multidirectional process because it may be formal or informal or it may be upward, downward and horizontal or it may be between two employees or organization and outsiders dealing with the organization.

Communication is regarded as a system which consists of many interrelated and independent elements. De Vito (1978) has defined “Communication as a process consisting of a sender transmitting message through media to a receiver who responds”. By analyzing communication process one can easily discover that it is a whole system made up of various identifiable elements including sender, encoding, medium, receiver and feedback.

Sender (source): Sender of the message is at a starting point of communication system who initiates the communication. Sender is a person who is willing to communicate, has a need to do or is under obligation to pass an information to other. For example, deputy manager (marketing) wants to inform marketing manager regarding the process of work.

Encoding: The purpose of encoding is to translate internal thought of sender into a language or code that the receiver of the message will probably understand it. Through the process of encoding the sender attempts to establish “mutually” of meaning of the message with the receiver by choosing symbol, usually in the form of words and gestures that the sender believes to have the same meaning for the receiver. The choice of symbol or gesture to the large extent depends on nature of message being communicated and its purpose.

Channel: Every communication is transmitted through a channel or medium e.g., print, sight, sound etc. The channel carries the message and serves as link between the communicator and communicatee. The encoded message is sent to the receiver through the channel. It may be formal or informal.

Receiver: The receiver is a person who receives or perceives the message of sender. Communication does not take place if it is not received by the receiver and it does not serve any purpose if it has reached the receiver but he does not understand it. The receiver reads, listens or observes to get the message. He also analysis or interprets the message and conveys his action or response.

Decoding: It is a process whereby the receiver interprets communication message into meaningful information. This process has two steps, first receive the message, then to interpret it. The effectiveness of communication depends on how much receiver’s decoding matches the sender message. The receiver’s willingness to receive the message is a basic prerequisite for successful decoding. To increase the chance of success of decoding it is necessary that the receiver knows the language and terminology used in the message. The knowledge about sender’s background and his purpose is also important for receiver. In addition, an effective listening also helps him in receiving and interpreting the message.

Feedback: It is the response or reaction of the communication process. It is directed towards the communicator to facilitate future communications. It represents the return flow of communication or the impact of the initial communication. Feedback enables the source to know whether or not the message has been received and interpreted correctly. Communication is said to be complete when the feedback is received by the communicator. With the helps of feedback distortion its meaning can be corrected.

Shannon's Model of the Communication Process

Shannon's (1948) model of the communication process is, in important ways, the beginning of the modern field. It provided, for the first time, a general model of the communication process that could be treated as the common ground of such diverse disciplines as journalism, rhetoric, linguistics, and speech and hearing sciences. Part of its success is due to its structuralist reduction of communication to a set of basic constituents that not only explain how communication happens, but why communication sometimes fails. Good timing played a role as well. The world was barely thirty years into the age of mass radio, had arguably fought a world war in its wake, and an even more powerful, television, was about to assert itself. It was time to create the field of communication as a unified discipline, and Shannon's model was as good an excuse as any. The model's enduring value is readily evident in introductory textbooks. It remains one of the first things most students learn about communication when they take an introductory communication class. Indeed, it is one of only a handful of theoretical statements about the communication process that can be found in introductory textbooks in both mass communication and interpersonal communication.

Shannon's model, breaks the process of communication down into eight discrete components:

One : An information source. Presumably a person who creates a message.

Two : The message, which is both sent by the information source and received by the destination.

Three : A transmitter. For Shannon's immediate purpose a telephone instrument that captures an audio signal, converts it into an electronic signal, and amplifies it for transmission through the telephone network. Transmission is readily generalized within Shannon's information theory to encompass a wide range of transmitters. The simplest transmission system, that associated with face-to-face communication, has at least two layers of transmission. The first, the mouth (sound) and body (gesture), create and modulate a signal. The second layer, which might also be described as a channel, is built of the air (sound) and light (gesture) that enable the transmission of those signals from one person to another. A television broadcast would obviously include many more layers, with the addition of cameras and microphones, editing and filtering systems, a national signal distribution network (often satellite), and a local radio wave broadcast antenna.

One :The signal, which flows through a channel. There may be multiple parallel signals, as is the case in face-to-face interaction where sound and gesture involve different signal systems that depend on different channels and modes of transmission. There may be multiple serial signals, with sound and/or gesture turned into electronic signals, radio waves, or words and pictures in a book.

Two : A carrier or channel, which is represented by the small unlabeled box in the middle of the model. The most commonly used channels include air, light, electricity, radio waves, paper, and postal systems. Note that there may be multiple channels associated with the multiple layers of transmission, as described above.

Three : Noise, in the form of secondary signals that obscure or confuse the signal carried. Given Shannon's focus on telephone transmission, carriers, and reception, it should not be surprising that noise is restricted to noise that obscures or obliterates some portion of the signal within the channel. This is a fairly restrictive notion of noise, by current standards, and a somewhat misleading one. Today we have at least some media which are so noise free that compressed signals are constructed with an absolutely minimal amount information and little likelihood of signal loss. In the process, Shannon's solution to noise, redundancy, has been largely replaced by a minimally redundant solution: error detection and correction. Today we use noise more as a metaphor for problems associated with effective listening.

Four : A receiver. In Shannon's conception, the receiving telephone instrument. In face to face communication a set of ears (sound) and eyes (gesture). In television, several layers of receiver, including an antenna and a television set.

Five : A destination. Presumably a person who consumes and processes the message.

The ecological model of communication, shown in Figure 2, attempts to provide a platform on which these issues can be explored. It asserts that communication occurs in the intersection of four fundamental constructs: communication between people (creators and consumers) is mediated by messages which are created using language within media; consumed from media and interpreted using language.

This model is, in many ways, a more detailed elaboration of Lasswell's (1948) classic outline of the study of communication: "Who ... says what ... in which channel ... to whom ... with what effect". In the ecological model , the "who" are the creators of messages, the "says what" are the messages, the "in which channel" is elaborated into languages (which are the content of channels) and media (which channels are a component of), the "to whom" are the consumers of messages, and the effects are found in various relationships between the primitives, including relationships, perspectives, attributions, interpretations, and the continuing evolution of languages and media.

A number of relationships are described in this model:

One : Messages are created and consumed using language

Two : Language occurs within the context of media

Three : Messages are constructed and consumed within the context of media

Four : The roles of consumer and creator are reflexive. People become creators when they reply or supply feedback to other people. Creators become consumers when they make use of feedback to adapt their messages to message consumers. People learn how to create messages through the act of consuming other peoples messages.

Five : The roles of consumer and creator are introspective. Creators of messages create messages within the context of their perspectives of and relationships with anticipated consumers of messages. Creators optimize their messages to their target audiences. Consumers of messages interpret those messages within the context of their perspectives of, and relationships with, creators of messages. Consumers make attributions of meaning based on their opinion of the message creator. People form these perspectives and relationships as a function of their communication.

Six : The messages creators of messages construct are necessarily imperfect representations of the meaning they imagine. Messages are created within the expressive limitations of the medium selected and the meaning representation space provided by the language used. The message created is almost always a partial and imperfect representation of what the creator would like to say.

Seven : A consumers interpretation of a messages necessarily attributes meaning imperfectly. Consumers intepret messages within the limits of the languages used and the media those languages are used in. A consumers interpretation of a message may be very different than what the creator of a message imagined.

Eight : People learn language by through the experience of encountering language being used within media. The languages they learn will almost always be the languages when communicating with people who already know and use those languages. That communication always occurs within a medium that enables those languages.

Nine : People learn media by using media. The media they learn will necessarilly be the media used by the people they communicate with.

Ten : People invent and evolve languages. While some behavior expressions (a baby's cry) occur naturally and some aspects of language structure may mirror the ways in which the brain structures ideas, language does not occur naturally. People invent new language when there is no language that they can be socialized into. People evolve language when they need to communicate ideas that existing language is not sufficient to.

Eleven : People invent and evolve media While some of the modalities and channels associated with communication are naturally occurring, the media we use to communicate are not.

Disediakan Oleh : Che Khairul Azli bin Che Ahmad ( Alumni Debat UiTM)